Install OpenCV 4 on macOS

This tutorial provides step-by-step instructions to install OpenCV 4 (with Python bindings) on your macOS machine.

OpenCV 4 was released on November 20th, 2018.

I originally wrote this blog post when the alpha version was released, and it has now been updated on November 30th, 2018 to support the official release.

OpenCV 4 comes with new features, particularly in the DNN module for deep learning.

To learn how to install OpenCV 4 on macOS, just keep reading.

Looking for the source code to this post?
Jump right to the downloads section.

Install OpenCV 4 on macOS

In this blog post we’re going to install OpenCV 4 on macOS. OpenCV 4 is packed with new features, many of which are deep-learning focused.

Note: If you landed on the wrong install tutorial (perhaps you want to install OpenCV on Ubuntu or your Raspberry Pi), then you should visit my OpenCV installation guides page. I post links to all my OpenCV install tutorials there.

First, we’ll install Xcode and set up Homebrew.

From there, we’ll establish Python virtual environments.

Then we’ll compile OpenCV 4 from source. Compiling from source allows us to have full control over the compile and build as well as to install the full OpenCV 4 build. I’ll cover alternative methods (pip and Homebrew) in future installation guides (neither of these methods can be covered until OpenCV 4 is officially released).

Finally, we’ll test out our OpenCV 4 install and get our feet wet with a real OpenCV project.

Let’s begin!

Step #1: Install Xcode

First we need to install Xcode.

To install Xcode, fire up the Apple App Store, find the Xcode app, and install. You’ll need to wait patiently as this figure indicates:

Figure 1: Xcode is a dependency for Homebrew and therefore OpenCV 4 on macOS. To install Xcode, launch the App Store, find Xcode, and run the installation.

After Xcode has installed we need to accept a license agreement. Launch a terminal and enter the following command:

To accept the license, simply scroll down and accept it.

Once you’ve accepted the license agreement, let’s install Apple Command Line Tools. This is required, so that you’ll have make , gcc , clang , etc. You can install the tools via:

Figure 2: Installing Apple Command Line Tools on macOS.

Figure 2: Installing Apple Command Line Tools on macOS.

Click the “Install” button and wait about 5 minutes for the installation to complete.

Step #2: Install Homebrew

For this step we’re going to install the Mac community package manager, Homebrew.

Homebrew runs on Ruby which is a popular programming language. When you’re ready, copy the entire command below to install Homebrew:

Note: Make sure you use the <=> button in the code block above to expand the code block before you copy and paste. If you don’t expand the code block you may end up copying pasting part of the command, which will ultimately end with an error installing Homebrew.

Homebrew commands are shortened to brew .

Let’s update the Homebrew definitions:

And now let’s edit our Mac’s bash profile. This script is run each time you launch a terminal. For simplicity, I suggest the nano text editor. If you’re more comfortable with vim or emacs, then go for it.

Edit your bash profile with nano using the following command:

Once you’re actively editing the file, append the following lines to the end to update your PATH :

From there, save the profile. If you’re using nano, you’ll see the shortcut keys at the bottom of the window which demonstrate how to save (write) and exit.

Once you’re back in bash, source your bash profile:

Step #3: Install OpenCV prerequisites using Homebrew

In this section we’ll ensure that Python 3.6 is installed. We’ll also install prerequisites for building OpenCV from source.

Install Python 3.6

It is extremely important to use Python 3.6. By default High Sierra and Mojave are coming with Python 3.7 now. It sounds good, but Python 3.7 is unsupported by Keras/TensorFlow (both are used often on this blog) and thus are not a good choice for OpenCV either.

These commands will install Python 3.6.5_1:

Be sure to copy the entire command + URL.

Let’s verify:

Great! I can see that we have Python 3.6.5 installed now.

Let’s verify one more thing:

If you see /usr/local/bin/python3  you are using the Homebrew Python (which is what we desire). If you see /usr/bin/python3  then you are using the system Python and you likely need to fix your bash profile and/or source it.

Take the time now to verify you are using the Homebrew version of Python and not the system version.

Install other prerequisites

OpenCV requires a few prerequisites to be installed before we compile it. These packages are related to either (1) tools used to build and compile, (2) libraries used for image I/O operations (i.e., loading various image file formats from disk such as JPEG, PNG, TIFF, etc.) or (3) optimization libraries.

To install these prerequisites for OpenCV on macOS execute the following commands:

A tool you’ll learn to love is wget . All wget  does is download files from the command line. We can use Homebrew to install wget:

Step #4: Install Python dependencies for OpenCV 4

We’re going to install the Python dependencies for OpenCV 4 in this step.

Taking advantage of the wget  tool that we just installed, let’s download and install pip (a Python package manager):

Now that we have pip installed, we can install virtualenv and virtualenvwrapper, two tools for managing virtual environments. Python virtual environments are a best practice for Python development and I strongly urge you to take full advantage of them.

Each week, I receive countless emails and blog comments about problems that can be avoided with use of virtual environments. Virtual environments are different than virtual machines despite the similar name.

To learn about virtual environments, I suggest you give this article a read.

Let’s install virtualenv  and virtualenvwrapper , then do a bit of cleanup:

From there, we need to edit our bash profile again so that these two tools work properly.

Fire up nano (or your preferred text editor):

And then add these lines to the end of the file:

Figure 3: Using the nano text editor to edit the ~/.bash_profile prior to installing OpenCV 4 for macOS.

Pro-tip: You can use bash commands to append to the file without opening an editor:

Then source the file:

You’ll see several lines printed in your terminal indicating that virtualenvwrapper is setup.

The virtualenvwrapper  tool provides us a number of terminal commands:

  • mkvirtualenv <env_name> <options> : Used to “make a virtual environment”
  • rmvirtualenv <env_name> : Destroys a virtual environment
  • workon <env_name> : Activates a virtual environment
  • deactivate : Deactivates the current virtual environment
  • You’ll want to read the docs for more information.

Let’s take advantage of the first command to create a Python virtual environment for OpenCV:

Notice that cv  is the name of our environment and that I am creating a Python 3 (controlled by the -p python3  switch) environment.

Important: Take note in the output that Python 3.6 is being utilized for the environment as well (highlighted).

You may name your environment differently if you’d like. I actually like to name my environments like so:

  • py3cv4
  • py3cv3
  • py2cv2
  • etc.

Here my py3cv4  virtual environment can be used for Python 3 + OpenCV 4. My py3cv3  virtual environment is used for Python 3 and OpenCV 3. And my py2cv2  environment can be used to test legacy Python 2.7 + OpenCV 2.4 code. These virtual environment names are easy to remember and allow me to switch between OpenCV + Python versions (nearly) seamlessly.

Next, let’s install NumPy while we’re inside the environment.

Chances are, the environment is already active (indicated by (cv)  preceding your bash prompt). Just in case, let’s workon  (activate) the environment:

Figure 4: We are “in” the cv virtual environment as is denoted by (cv) before the bash prompt. This is necessary prior to installing packages and compiling OpenCV 4.

Each time you wish to use the environment or install packages into it you should use the workon  command.

Now that our environment is activated, we can install NumPy:

Step #5: Compile OpenCV 4 for macOS

Compiling from source gives you the most control over your build as opposed to package managers such as pip, Homebrew, and Anaconda.

Package managers are convenient for sure and I’ll cover them in a future installation tutorial, I just want to give you fair warning — while they appear easy on the surface, you won’t be able to get the latest revision of OpenCV and in some cases it won’t work well with virtual environments. You also might be missing features.

I still compile from source all the time and you should definitely learn how if you’re serious about working with OpenCV.

Download OpenCV 4

Let’s download OpenCV.

First, navigate to our home folder and download both opencv and opencv_contrib. The contrib repo contains extra modules and functions which we frequently use here on the PyImageSearch blog. You should be installing the OpenCV library with the additional contrib modules as well.

When you’re ready, just follow along to download both the opencv  and opencv_contrib  code:

Update 2018-11-30: OpenCV 4.0.0 is officially released and I have updated the download URLs above.

From there, let’s unzip the archives:

I also like to rename the directories:

If you skip renaming the directories, don’t forget to update the CMake paths next.

Now that opencv  and opencv_contrib  are downloaded and ready to go, let’s set up our environment.

Compile OpenCV4 from source

Now that opencv  and opencv_contrib  are downloaded and ready to go, let’s employ CMake to setup our compile and Make to perform the compilation.

Navigate back to your OpenCV repo and create + enter a build  directory:

Now we’re ready for CMake. Be sure to use the  workon  command before executing the cmake  command as shown:

Update 2018-11-30: I added a CMake compile flag to enable nonfree algorithms ( OPENCV_ENABLE_NONFREE=ON ). This is required for OpenCV 4 if you want access to patented algorithms for educational purposes.

Note: For the above CMake command, I spent considerable time creating, testing, and refactoring it. It is effectively self-configuring with no work required on your part. I’m confident that it will save you time and frustration if you use it exactly as it appears. Make sure you click the “<=>” button in the toolbar of the code block above to expand the code block. This will enable you to copy and paste the entire command (it’s pretty lengthy).

Once CMake has finished, scroll up (ever so slightly) until you see the following information in your terminal:

Figure 5: Inspecting CMake output while installing OpenCV 4 on macOS is important. Be sure that your cv virtual environment is being used for Python and NumPy.

Your output should look very similar to mine. What you’re looking for is to ensure that your Python 3 interpreter and NumPy in the virtual environment will both be used. If you don’t see this, then you likely executed CMake without being “in” the cv  virtual environment (or whatever you named your Python virtual environment). If that’s the case, no worries — just delete the build  directory, activate the virtual environment with the workon  command, and re-run CMake.

Next, scroll up a little further to check that your output matches mine where I’ve highlighted:

Figure 6: Verify that the “Non-free algorithms” will be installed in OpenCV 4.

Provided that your CMake output is good to go you can kick off the compilation via:

Note: The -j4 argument is optional and will instruct make  to take advantage of 4 CPU cores. You can adjust the numerical value or leave the argument off completely. It doesn’t happen often, but sometimes race conditions may prevent the compile from finishing — at which point you should execute make  without the flag.

Take a break while the compilation continues, but don’t forget to come back and create symbolic links.

When make  is finished, you should see this:

Figure 6: Compiling OpenCV 4 on macOS has reached 100%. We’re now ready to link OpenCV 4 into our cv environment.

If you’ve reached 100%, then there is one additional command to install OpenCV 4 prior to Step #6:

Step #6: Sym-link OpenCV 4 on macOS to your virtual environment site-packages

Now let’s create what is called a “symbolic link”. We need a link from our cv  virtual environment  site-packages  to our system site-packages  where OpenCV was installed. Effectively, OpenCV will then be “linked” into the virtual environment allowing you to import it into Python scripts as well as the command line interpreter.

Before we make a symbolic link to link OpenCV 4 into our Python virtual environment, let’s determine our Python version:

Using the Python version, we can easily navigate to the correct site-packages  directory next (although I do recommend tab-completion in the terminal).

Update 2018-12-20: The following paths have been updated. Previous versions of OpenCV installed the bindings in a different location ( /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages ), so be sure to take a look at the paths below carefully.

At this point, your Python 3 bindings for OpenCV should reside in the following folder:

Let’s rename them to simply cv2.so :

Pro-tip: If you are installing OpenCV 3 and OpenCV 4 alongside each other, instead of renaming the file to cv2.so , you might consider naming it cv2.opencv4.0.0.so  and then in the next sub-step sym-link appropriately from that file to cv2.so  as well.

Our last sub-step is to sym-link our OpenCV cv2.so  bindings into our cv  virtual environment:

Important considerations:

  1. Take the time to understand how sym-linking works — you might read this article.
  2. Be sure your paths are correct. I recommend tab-completion rather than copy/paste.

I can’t stress this point enough: The cv  Python virtual environment is entirely independent and sequestered from the default Python version on your system. Any Python packages in the global directories will not be available to the cv  virtual environment. Similarly, any Python packages installed in site-packages  of cv will not be available to the global install of Python. Keep this in mind when you’re working in your Python virtual environment and it will help avoid a lot of confusion and headaches.

Install imutils

I also recommend that you install my very own imutils package if you’ll be frequently visiting my blog as we use it quite often:

Step #7: Test your macOS + OpenCV 3 install

It is always important to test your OpenCV install to make sure the proper links have been made.

I like to fire up a Python shell in the virtual environment and check that it imports without error and that the version matches my intention:

Figure 7: To test that OpenCV 4 is installed on macOS, fire up Python in your virtual environment and execute cv2.__version__ after importing cv2.

Provided you see no errors and OpenCV 4 is installed, you’re good to go!

Run your first example with your fresh install of OpenCV 4!

If you’re breaking into the field of computer vision with OpenCV, my guess is that you want to run something cool with OpenCV.

Let’s start by building a simple “document scanner” with OpenCV.

I’m not going to review all the code here — you should check out the original post if you’re interested or when you have more time.

To get started, simply scroll to the “Downloads” and grab the source code + images.

From there just enter the following commands to prepare:

As you can see, there are two sample images, a pyimagesearch  module (which needs to be downloaded via the “Downloads” section — it is not pip-installable), and the scan script.

We’ll need one additional library added to our cv  environment: Scikit-image. To install it, simply use pip. While you’re at it, if you didn’t install imutils earlier, go ahead and install it as well:

From there you can execute the following command to give OpenCV 4 a workout:

At the end of each step, you’ll need to press a key — with the window in focus on your desktop.

Sometimes OpenCV’s hides windows under one another, so be sure to drag the OpenCV image windows around to see what is available.

Here’s a screenshot of the last step of document scanning:

Figure 8: Applying step 3 of our document scanner, perspective transform. The original image is on the left and the scanned image on the right.

That was fun!

Learn how the code works by reading the original blog post.

If you’d like to build additional projects with OpenCV 4, just continue to follow my blog!

Troubleshooting and FAQ

In this section, I address some common questions and problems that readers encounter when installing OpenCV 4 on macOS.

Q. Can I run OpenCV 4 with Python 2.7 on macOS?

A. I suggest you stick with Python 3, but if you’re working on legacy projects, I understand that you might want to use Python 2.7. Here is what you need to do:

  • Install Python 2.7 via Homebrew using brew install python2
  • You should pip with 2.7 in Step #3: sudo python get-pip.py  and sudo pip install virtualenv virtualenvwrapper
  • In Step #3, simply create a Python 2.7 environment: mkvirtualenv cv -p python2.7
  • Verify CMake output is using your Python 2.7 virtual environment interpreter in Step #4, Figure 5.

Q. Do I need to run brew install Python? Python seems to already be installed on my Mac!

A. Yes. Python is installed, but you’ll want Brew’s updated Python and plus Brew will put Python in /usr/local/bin  which is separate from your system Python.

Q. When I execute mkvirtualenv  or workon , I encounter a “command not found error”.

A. There a number of reasons why you would be seeing this error message, all of come from to Step #3:

  1. First, make sure you have installed virtualenv  and virtualenvwrapper  properly using the pip  package manager. Verify by running pip freeze , and ensure that you see both virtualenv  and virtualenvwrapper  in the list of installed packages.
  2. Your ~/.bash_profile  file may have mistakes. View the contents of your ~/.bash_profile  file to see the proper export  and source  commands are present (check Step #3 for the commands that should be appended to ~/.bash_profile ).
  3. You may have forgotten to source  your ~/.bash_profile . Make sure you run  source ~/.bash_profile  after editing it to ensure you have access to the mkvirtualenv  and workon  commands.

Q. When I open a new terminal, logout, or reboot my macOS system, I cannot execute the mkvirtualenv  or workon  commands.

A. See #2 from the previous question.

Q. I reached the end, however when I run Python in my terminal and try to import cv2 , I encounter an error. What next?

A. Unfortunately this situation is hard to diagnose without being on your system. Many things could have gone wrong. The most likely point of failure is the symbolic linking step. I suggest you do the following to check the symbolic link:

What you’re looking for is the ->  arrow and that it points to a valid path on your system. If the path is invalid, then you have a sym-link issue that you need to fix. You can correct it by deleting the symlink and trying Step #5 again.

Q. Why do I get a “NONFREE” error when trying to use a patented algorithm such as SURF?

A. With OpenCV 4 there is a new requirement for compiling. Please refer to Step #5 where this is addressed for OpenCV 4 with a CMake argument.

Q. Can I install OpenCV with Brew instead of compiling from source?

A. Beware! The answer is yes, but it if you plan on using virtual environments you’ll still need symbolic links. I’ll do another writeup on the Homebrew method in the future.

Q. Can I install OpenCV 4 with pip into my virtual environment?

A. Currently you can’t install OpenCV 4 with pip. But you can install OpenCV 3.4.3. See how to pip install opencv.

Summary

Today we installed OpenCV4 with Python bindings on your macOS machine.

I’ll be back with future installation tutorials for OpenCV 4 (including one for the Raspberry Pi). If you’re looking for my other, already published OpenCV install tutorials, be sure to refer to this page.

Stay tuned!

To download the source code for today’s tutorial, just enter your email in the form below.

Downloads:

If you would like to download the code and images used in this post, please enter your email address in the form below. Not only will you get a .zip of the code, I’ll also send you a FREE 17-page Resource Guide on Computer Vision, OpenCV, and Deep Learning. Inside you'll find my hand-picked tutorials, books, courses, and libraries to help you master CV and DL! Sound good? If so, enter your email address and I’ll send you the code immediately!

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132 Responses to Install OpenCV 4 on macOS

  1. BENYA August 17, 2018 at 6:34 pm #

    It’s nice tutorial that millions euros can’t buy.. Thank you so much for great tutorial.

    • Adrian Rosebrock August 19, 2018 at 8:24 am #

      Thanks Benya!

  2. Robert Franks August 18, 2018 at 8:38 pm #

    Hi Adrian- I got an error during make-


    initialize a variable of type ‘char *’ with an rvalue of type
    ‘const char *’
    char* str = PyString_AsString(obj);
    ^ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    Any Ideas?

    • Adrian Rosebrock August 19, 2018 at 8:26 am #

      Try the following commit IDs:

      • OpenCV: 76eb38976103c86610f73d87e46b7cb5a74f0017
      • Contrib: 9adf7a58a02be9db1152b9c7ba5fc2404a7925ed

      Check out those IDs using git, delete your “build” directory, and then start the compile again.

      • Paco Brevers August 20, 2018 at 6:35 am #

        Solved =)

        • Adrian Rosebrock August 20, 2018 at 2:39 pm #

          Awesome, I’m glad that worked!

      • Florian L August 20, 2018 at 9:35 am #

        The build completed successfully with these two commit ids. Thanks!

        • Adrian Rosebrock August 20, 2018 at 2:40 pm #

          Thanks for confirming, Florian 🙂

      • Robert Franks August 20, 2018 at 6:26 pm #

        Worked for me as well, thanks

        • Adrian Rosebrock August 22, 2018 at 9:47 am #

          Awesome, congrats on getting OpenCV 4 installed!

      • Tom August 20, 2018 at 8:03 pm #

        Hi Adrian — that commit ID for opencv_contrib doesn’t exist?

        $(opencv_contrib)> git checkout 9adf7a58a02be9db1152b9c7ba5fc2404a7925ed
        fatal: reference is not a tree: 9adf7a58a02be9db1152b9c7ba5fc2404a7925ed

        • Adrian Rosebrock August 22, 2018 at 9:48 am #

          Hey Tom — I would suggest trying again. Other readers are reporting success with that specific commit.

      • Allan Dickson August 29, 2018 at 9:02 am #

        That worked for me too!

  3. PAULO GONCALVES August 19, 2018 at 10:01 pm #

    Dear Adrian,
    thank you very much,

    I am having an issue when to make opencv 4.

    the error appear:
    can you help?


    char* str = PyString_AsString(obj);
    ^ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    1 error generated.

    I have python 3.7 on my workon py3cv4

    thanks, Paulo.

    • PAULO GONCALVES August 20, 2018 at 9:26 am #

      thank you Adrian,
      your previous answers worked ok.

      OpenCV: 76eb38976103c86610f73d87e46b7cb5a74f0017
      Contrib: 9adf7a58a02be9db1152b9c7ba5fc2404a7925ed
      Check out those IDs using git, delete your “build” directory, and then start the compile again.

      best,
      Paulo.

  4. M Johannessen August 20, 2018 at 4:04 pm #

    I’m fine to the point of making the symlinks at

    $ ls /usr/local/lib/python3.7/site-packages/cv2.cpython-37m-darwin.so

    I have the file cv2.cpython-36m-darwin.so at $ ls /usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages/

    but not in the /usr/local/lib/python3.7/site-packages/ directory.

    I have python 3.7 installed (using brew) at /usr/local/Cellar/python/3.7.0

    Where does cv2.cpython-37m-darwin.so get installed?

    • Adrian Rosebrock August 22, 2018 at 9:50 am #

      If you’re using Python 3.7 I’m not sure why you would have a file named “cv2.cpython-36m-darwin.so” in your Python 3.7 site-packages directory. My guess is that your paths are incorrect. Go back and double-check them.

  5. Nitin August 20, 2018 at 11:08 pm #

    I did not create a virtual env but proceeded with the steps excluding that. I can’t see cv2 in my site-packages and I have an anaconda version of python.

    • Adrian Rosebrock August 22, 2018 at 9:46 am #

      If you’re using Anaconda your PYTHON3_LIBRARY, PYTHON3_INCLUDE_DIR, and PYTHON3_EXECUTABLE paths will need to be updated. You’ll need to manually verify them yourself.

  6. Andrew Baker August 21, 2018 at 3:19 am #

    Hi Adrian, I built mine successfully using python 3.6.5. However the built cv2.cpython-36m-darwin.so file ended up in a python3 folder located within the opencv build folder. I could have created the link from there, but just ended up copying the file into the usr/local/lib/python3.6/site-packages folder.

    • Adrian Rosebrock August 22, 2018 at 9:43 am #

      Awesome, congrats on getting OpenCV 4 installed on your macOS machine, Andrew!

  7. Jesudas Fernandes August 22, 2018 at 3:09 am #

    thanks Adrian,

    For publishing this blog, and giving us head start with Open CV 4.
    The commit ids provided in the QnA section was required to overcome the build error.

    • Adrian Rosebrock August 22, 2018 at 9:22 am #

      Thank you for confirming, Jesudas! 🙂 And congrats on getting OpenCV 4 installed on your machine.

  8. Ashutosh Sharma August 23, 2018 at 11:15 am #

    Can you please help me setup caffe in my mac please!

  9. Ashutosh Sharma August 23, 2018 at 1:24 pm #

    Billions of Thanks Adrian for helping in setting up openCV 4 on python 3.7

    • Adrian Rosebrock August 24, 2018 at 8:37 am #

      Thanks Ashutosh! I’m glad you were able to get OpenCV 4 installed 🙂

  10. Adebiyi Abdurrahman August 26, 2018 at 2:14 pm #

    For the love of God, please adhere to the “make -j4” vs “make”
    advise by Adrian while compiling the opencv4. Miss it and you can be on a one way ticket to a hellish install.

  11. Bob September 7, 2018 at 3:20 pm #

    No matter which commit I use (head, 76eb38976103c86610f73d87e46b7cb5a74f0017, or 46def2fdc194ebd43a703845013bc54c59ce9d75) I get errors on the CMake stage of the installation.

    First one is:
    error “__POPCNT__ is not defined by compiler”

    Not sure how many after that are due to the initial one blowing up the compile process.

    This is OS X 10.13.6, python version is 3.7 via homebrew.

    Any possible suggestions for why it’s dying there?

    • Adrian Rosebrock September 11, 2018 at 8:26 am #

      Hey Bob — I’m sorry to hear about the error. Unfortunately, I’m not sure what the exact issue is. I imagine it’s due to a development release of OpenCV 4 and not the official release. I’m sure the problem will be cleared up for the final release later this year 🙂

    • Newman September 26, 2018 at 10:34 am #

      Bob,

      I had a lot of problems like you.

      But Today(26/September) a did:
      git clone https://github.com/opencv/opencv.git
      git clone https://github.com/opencv/opencv_contrib.git

      No chekout, and built as recommended by Adrian. Everything built perfect!!

      Good Luck!

    • Kirow October 13, 2018 at 5:18 pm #

      Same configuration and same issue. Have you found solution?

    • jug smith December 27, 2018 at 10:52 pm #

      weren’t we supposed to install python 3.6.5_1

  12. Jean-Christophe Yacono September 7, 2018 at 5:54 pm #

    Hi Adrien, No so far from the end (cmake -D CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=RELEASE \), I get that alert : -bash: cmake: command not found

    any help?

    • Adrian Rosebrock September 11, 2018 at 8:25 am #

      If the “cmake” command is not installed I think you may have forgotten to either:

      1. Install Xcode
      2. And/or run sudo xcode-select --install

      Go back to Step #1 and verify you’ve ran those commands.

      • Kirow October 13, 2018 at 4:36 pm #

        I did not get cmake after toolchain installation / update.
        Installed via ‘brew install cmake’

  13. Jorge Nino September 18, 2018 at 5:30 pm #

    Hi Adrian. Your tutorials are amazing, for both practitioners and students.
    I wonder how do you keep multiple versions of OpenCV in OSX (say 3.1.0 and 3.4.3) without creating conflicts. Between major versions (3 and 4) maybe easier? Thanks.

    • Adrian Rosebrock October 8, 2018 at 1:35 pm #

      I like to:

      1. Create a separate Python virtual environment for each install
      2. Compile OpenCV but only sym-link in the bindings from my “build” directory (I keep one “build” directory per each install)

  14. bagusflyer September 29, 2018 at 10:51 pm #

    Fixed the previous problem. But there is a new issue:

    fatal error:
    ‘Python.h’ file not found

  15. Kirow October 14, 2018 at 6:52 am #

    Hi Adrian, thank you for the awesome guide. I do not have any python/opencv experience, but seems that I finished all steps and got results 😀 You’ve earned +1 into your fanbase 😉

    However I got few problems during process, that were not covered in your guide (__POPCNT__ almost sent me into space):

    problem: cmake: command not found
    solution: brew install cmake

    problem: error “__POPCNT__ is not defined by compiler” error in CMakeError.log
    investigation: happens only with -D OPENCV_EXTRA_MODULES_PATH
    solution:
    1. cmake via terminal w/o -D OPENCV_EXTRA_MODULES_PATH
    2. open build folder and add -D OPENCV_EXTRA_MODULES_PATH via cmake GUI, configure, generate
    note: no idea what the problem

    problem: error: (-215) npoints >= 0 && (depth == CV_32F || depth == CV_32S) in function contourArea after python scan.py --image images/receipt.jpg
    solution:
    cnts = cnts[0] if imutils.is_cv2() else cnts[1]
    + cnts = cnts[0]

    • Mathieu November 20, 2018 at 6:11 pm #

      Thank you Kirow… you saved my night!

    • Mathias January 5, 2019 at 4:53 pm #

      Thank you!

      This should definitely go into the Troubleshooting section

  16. Yu-Sheng Li November 7, 2018 at 5:57 am #

    Thanks for the clear instructions!
    After installing, sometimes the following error occurs (for example when running SIFT):

    error: OpenCV(3.4.3) /io/opencv_contrib/modules/xfeatures2d/src/sift.cpp:1207: error: (-213:The function/feature is not implemented) This algorithm is patented and is excluded in this configuration; Set OPENCV_ENABLE_NONFREE CMake option and rebuild the library in function ‘create’

    So when running CMAKE one more option should be added as follows:

    -D OPENCV_ENABLE_NONFREE=ON

  17. ROBERT M HARDING November 7, 2018 at 8:38 pm #

    Hi Adrain – Nice tutorial. I have a question for you though. I have an installation of Anaconda installed on my Mac. Is there a benefit to using your installation procedures instead of using Anaconda to create a virtual environment? .

    • Adrian Rosebrock November 10, 2018 at 10:11 am #

      You can use an Anaconda virtual environment if you wish. I find virtualenv/virtualenvwrapper to have less overhead/bloat but it’s entirely a personal choice.

  18. Shigeru KAWAGUCHI November 24, 2018 at 4:37 am #

    Hi Adrian,

    It seems that release version of OpenCV 4.0.0 installs cv2.cpython-37m-darwin.so as /usr/local/python/cv2/python-3.7/cv2.cpython-37m-darwin.so thus your Step #5 will require update, I am afraid.

    Since Raspberry Pi does the same, I guess OpenCV changed the path?

    • David Hoffman November 30, 2018 at 2:40 pm #

      Hi Shigeru, the blog post is updated to reflect the official download URLs, the new symlinks, and the new “non-free algorithms” issue 😎 .

  19. Bill Harvey December 2, 2018 at 4:05 pm #

    Tried to install OpenCV using Hombrew a few times and on this page:
    https://www.pyimagesearch.com/2016/12/19/install-opencv-3-on-macos-with-homebrew-the-easy-way/#comment-490362
    And commented that I couldn’t get it working. So I have now tried this update.
    Seems to all go OK until I try to sumlink.

    When I try and run:
    ls /usr/local/lib/python3.7/site-packages/cv2.cpython-37m-darwin.so
    I get:
    ls: /usr/local/lib/python3.7/site-packages/cv2.cpython-37m-darwin.so: No such file or directory

    Should I be doing this inside the vitualenv or outside of it?

    Anyway when I look in:
    ls /usr/local/lib/python3.7/site-packages/

    There is no cv2.cpython-37m-darwin.so because on a previous attempt it was renamed to cv2.so, but I can’t understand as I have followed this guide to completely re-install it?

    • Bill Harvey December 2, 2018 at 4:17 pm #

      Sorry – somewho I got the sylink commands mixed up between pages. Just tried again and I can now import OpenCV when in my virtual environmemt

  20. Justin van den Hurk December 6, 2018 at 2:13 pm #

    hi,

    after the cmake i checked for the right libraries, but however many times I tried I couldn’t get it to have the right libraries and the bumpy. sorry for the bad explanation, but is there anybody that an help

    thanks in advance

    • Adrian Rosebrock December 11, 2018 at 1:09 pm #

      Did you double and triple check that you were in the “cv” Python virtual environment prior to running “cmake”?

      $ workon cv

  21. Brand Hart December 10, 2018 at 12:42 am #

    Hi Adrian, when I follow the step to type “ln -s /usr/local/python/cv2 cv2” in terminal.
    it comes out “ln: cv2/cv2: Permission denied” , how can I solve it ? please help me,thank you!

    • Adrian Rosebrock December 11, 2018 at 12:47 pm #

      Are you in the “~/.virtualenvs/cv/lib/python3.6” first? Make sure you are before trying to create the sym-link.

  22. Ivan Hahanov December 11, 2018 at 12:18 pm #

    How can I add opencv 4 into my app bundle for distribution? Not just a reference. I’ve tried adding the whole cv2 folder instead of symlink and got the error:

    ImportError: ERROR: recursion is detected during loading of “cv2” binary extensions. Check OpenCV installation.

    • Adrian Rosebrock December 11, 2018 at 12:28 pm #

      There really isn’t an easy way to add OpenCV to a Python application. I haven’t found a clean, easy way to do it, unfortunately.

  23. alaa December 15, 2018 at 5:58 am #

    hello Adrian

    thanks for sharing face recognition code.
    i have opencv 4 installed on python 3.6.5 for mac using your website instructions.

    i have tested your shared source code for face recognition. however face recognition for video file is very slow.

    do you have any recommendation ?

    • Adrian Rosebrock December 18, 2018 at 9:16 am #

      Which face recognition post are you specifically referring to? I have a few of them.

  24. Charlie December 16, 2018 at 4:42 pm #

    Hi Adrian,

    Really love the tutorials 😀 However, I’m receiving the error ‘fatal error: ‘tesseract/baseapi.h’ file not found’ after the make -j4 command. Any ideas?

    • Adrian Rosebrock December 18, 2018 at 9:05 am #

      It sounds like for whatever reason OpenCV thinks Tesseract is installed and is trying to compile bindings for it. Do you have Tesseract installed on your system?

      • Charlie December 22, 2018 at 10:46 am #

        I’d already removed tesseract, however I removed brew python installs and reconstructed my virtual environments and it’s now worked first time

        • Ramon January 23, 2019 at 3:25 pm #

          Hi Charlie, I’m strugling with the same issue. I once installed tesseract but I am not sure how to remove it completely. I tried ‘brew uninstall tesseract’. What did you exactly do additionaly? Thanks a lot in advance for your response!

          • Adam April 5, 2019 at 3:29 am #

            The non-ideal, but definitely workable solution is to:
            1. Find your favorite text editor
            2. Use text editor to open for modification the header file ~/opencv_contrib/modules/text/src/precomp.hpp
            3. Change lines like #include to an absolute location (e.g. #include "/usr/local/Cellar/tesseract/4.0.0_1/include/tesseract/baseapi.h")

  25. Marco December 17, 2018 at 4:33 pm #

    Another thank you! Having wasted countless hours recently trying to complete Tensorflow’s & Caffe’s installation instructions I really appreciate your effort writing instructions that are current, tested, and actually work.

    • Adrian Rosebrock December 18, 2018 at 8:55 am #

      That’s awesome, Marco! Congrats on getting OpenCV installed on your Mac.

  26. Rob Williams December 20, 2018 at 5:10 pm #

    Hi Adrian,

    Thanks for the excellent tutorial! I wrote up a short addendum for anyone looking to install OpenCV for an Anaconda virtual environment instead of a Homebrew one https://jrw.cloudapps.unc.edu/OpenCV_Install.html

    • Adrian Rosebrock December 27, 2018 at 11:06 am #

      Thanks for sharing, Rob!

  27. Alberto December 21, 2018 at 11:23 pm #

    Hello Adrian, I was able to install OpenCV4 on a Mac accordingly to your instructions. No problem at all. Thanks!

    However, when I was trying to run the example at “Run your first example with your fresh install of OpenCV 4!”, I got the black image and in the Terminal showed:

    Unable to revert mtime: /Library/Fonts

    Did I missed something?

    • Adrian Rosebrock December 27, 2018 at 10:57 am #

      That is very strange and it sounds like it’s not related to your install of OpenCV 4, that is likely some other issue with your Mac. Unfortunately without physical access to your machine I’m not sure what the exact issue is.

  28. Paul Swanson December 27, 2018 at 3:44 pm #

    If I need to build with .jp2 support then is it as simple as “brew install jasper” and then add “-D BUILD_JASPER=ON” to my cmake command?

    • Adrian Rosebrock January 2, 2019 at 9:47 am #

      I have not verified that myself but based on my experience with OpenCV and cmake, yes, that is all you need.

  29. John December 30, 2018 at 7:39 am #

    Excellent tutorial! The only problem I had was figuring out when you were in the (CV) virtual environment and when you weren’t. Not very clear.

    • Adrian Rosebrock January 2, 2019 at 9:23 am #

      Hey John — did you see Figure 4? Figure 4 does a good job depicting if you are in the “cv” virtual environment or not.

  30. Justin Jai January 2, 2019 at 1:42 am #

    Hi Adrian,
    Thanks for this amazing tutorial. However, everything is fine until I moved to the last step that after I executed the “python scan.py –image images/receipt.jpg” command, The program is holding and not moving down. I read your post “How to Build a Kick-Ass Mobile Document Scanner in Just 5 Minutes” and found a similar problem, but is that for OpenCV 2 and 3 and not suit to OpenCV 4? Thanks for answering my question!

    • Adrian Rosebrock January 2, 2019 at 9:09 am #

      Click on the window opened by OpenCV and press any key on your keyboard to advance execution.

  31. Darran Edmundson January 5, 2019 at 2:17 am #

    Hi Adrian, you can probably trash my questions above. I worked around the first tbb issue (at least I think I have). The second xfeatures problem was caused by following your recipe without thinking enough. I unpacked opencv_contrib somewhere other than ~/. Unfortunately I had an older version ~/opencv_contrib so cmake was picking this up rather than 4.0. All sorted now … in that I was able to run the “document scanner” example successfully. Cheers, Darran.

    • Adrian Rosebrock January 5, 2019 at 8:35 am #

      Congratulations on resolving the issue, Darren!

  32. John January 6, 2019 at 12:01 am #

    Hi Adrian, when I run brew switch python 3.6.5_1 after i installed python 3.6, i get the error:
    Error: Could not symlink bin/2to3
    Target /usr/local/bin/2to3
    already exists. You may want to remove it:
    rm ‘/usr/local/bin/2to3’

    To force the link and overwrite all conflicting files:
    brew link –overwrite python

    To list all files that would be deleted:
    brew link –overwrite –dry-run python

    Just wondering if you knew why this error occurred.

    Thank you,

    • Adrian Rosebrock January 8, 2019 at 7:07 am #

      I haven’t encountered that error before but it looks like you and a couple other readers have ran into the same error. I’ll see if I can replicate.

    • Adrian Rosebrock January 9, 2019 at 12:56 pm #

      Hi John, I wasn’t able to replicate on High Sierra — are you running High Sierra or Mojave? I think that you can safely remove the 2to3 conversion script (Python 2.7 to Python 3). My guess is that they just have a new version of the script. I don’t know the reason why exactly Brew is giving you that error, but it doesn’t seem to be a big show stopper. My advice is to “go for it” and follow the instructions in the terminal output.

  33. Jeff January 6, 2019 at 4:16 am #

    Hi Adrian, awesome tutorial! I just have an issue when running “brew switch python 3.6.5_1”, and I get the error: Error: Could not symlink bin/2to3. I have python 3.6 downloaded so Im just wondering if you knew the solution. Thanks.

    • Adrian Rosebrock January 8, 2019 at 7:07 am #

      Hey Jeff, it looks like both you and John are receiving the same error. I’m not sure why that is happening as I’ve never encountered that error before.

      It looks like John has resolved the issue though but I’ll check on my end.

    • Adrian Rosebrock January 9, 2019 at 12:56 pm #

      Hi Jeff, see my latest response to John.

  34. Emre January 11, 2019 at 3:43 am #

    Hey Adrian, thanks for the awesome tutorial. Quick question though, are there any updates on Python3.7 compatibility? I would like to install OpenCV 4 but I’d rather not go back to Python3.6, if it’s even possible of course.

    • Adrian Rosebrock January 11, 2019 at 9:26 am #

      You can use Python 3.7 for OpenCV, that’s not a problem. The only thing you should keep in mind is if you’re interested in doing deep learning — TensorFlow, currently, does not support Python 3.7.

  35. Stephen January 15, 2019 at 6:03 pm #

    Awesome tutorial, Adrian. Well done.

    I’m curious if OpenCV can still be included in a C++ project if it’s installed in this way? C++ linking is… a nightmare, but maybe you can offer some guidance?

  36. Carlene Jones January 21, 2019 at 2:53 pm #

    Hi Adrian,

    Great tutorial! I completed it easily on my computer. Once I started the practical python book, I had trouble with Matplotlib on TkAgg, but thats another problem. I uninstalled homebrew and reinstalled to start the process over (all the simlinks were so messed up I didnt know what else to do) and now I get this error when trying to install python. python contains a recursive dependency on itself:
    python depends on sphinx-doc
    sphinx-doc depends on python

    It seems like the issue has been documented here, but they have not made any moves to fix it. https://github.com/scalacenter/bloop/issues/446

    Any ideas?

    Python 3.7 installs perfectly fine with brew install python.

  37. manoj January 21, 2019 at 3:20 pm #

    Hi Adrian, I have followed all the steps and faced no errors.
    But when I run “python scan.py –image images/receipt.jpg” only blank page is displayed.

    No error is thrown. I am not sure what’s wrong? Any suggestions?

    • Adrian Rosebrock January 22, 2019 at 9:13 am #

      Could you elaborate a bit on what you mean by “only blank page” is displayed? What happens when you click on the active window opened by OpenCV and press a key to advance execution of the script?

      • Manoj January 23, 2019 at 1:10 pm #

        Today, I created a project in Pycharm and installed Opencv-python/ imutils/scikit-image packages. All other dependent packages were downloaded automatically.

        Now the test program works as expected.

        is this step needed for this complete installation to work or without above step it should work?

        • Adrian Rosebrock January 25, 2019 at 7:22 am #

          No, it’s not a required step to use a PyCharm project. It sounds like there was just an issue with your initial script or input image.

  38. sarathy January 26, 2019 at 5:43 am #

    python contains a recursive dependency on itself:
    python depends on sphinx-doc
    sphinx-doc depends on python

    • Adrian Rosebrock January 29, 2019 at 6:57 am #

      Are you using macOS Mojave and/or Python 3.7?

      • Domenico Loschiavo January 29, 2019 at 12:58 pm #

        Hi Adrian,
        I’ve got the same error on a fresh formatted machine.
        Im using MacOS High Sierra and python 3.7 is not installed by default.
        After getting the dependency error I installed python 3.7 using “brew install python” and then I tried again to install python 3.6 but I still got the dependency error.
        Any suggestion ?

        • Adrian Rosebrock February 1, 2019 at 7:25 am #

          Take a look at this brand new post which includes a resolution to the dependency error.

          • Domenico Loschiavo February 1, 2019 at 11:23 am #

            Hi Adrian,
            I solved it in a different way:

            First of all I uninstalled the python 3.7 release I installed two days ago using “brew uninstall python”.
            Then I downloaded the python installer 3.6.8 from python web site and installed it using its installer.
            Because of this, python components have not been installed on /usr/local/Cellar/python/3.6.5_1/Frameworks … but they are in /Library/Frameworks …

            This is not a problem for virtualenv that recognize the correct directory.

            Up to now I did not found any problem related to this solution so I’d like to share it 🙂

  39. Saksham January 29, 2019 at 5:34 am #

    Hi Adrian. When I run the ‘make’ command it does not compile and instead shows another message:

    make: *** No targets specified and no makefile found. Stop.

    Could you please tell me what the problem is?

    • Adrian Rosebrock January 29, 2019 at 6:27 am #

      Your “cmake” command exited with an error and your build files were not generated. Go back to the “cmake” step and look for the error.

  40. FabioAC January 29, 2019 at 5:00 pm #

    Hi Adrian,

    i had to add the following line on make to MACos Mojave

    -D OPENCV_EXTRA_MODULES_PATH=../../opencv_contrib/modules \

    i got errors on make (very strange). Hope help someone.

    • FabioAC January 29, 2019 at 5:03 pm #

      Sorry Adrian, my fault.

      i didn´t used my home to compile, i worked on another directory not my home.

      • Adrian Rosebrock February 1, 2019 at 7:21 am #

        Congrats on resolving the issue!

      • Lo March 16, 2019 at 4:32 am #

        Thanks Fabio, had the same issue.
        And thanks Adrian, great tutorial!

  41. Warsame February 1, 2019 at 7:18 pm #

    I just completed this tutorial and everything worked exactly, wow!! thank you for this educational tutorial. Well done.

    • Adrian Rosebrock February 5, 2019 at 9:42 am #

      Thanks for the kind words — and congrats on getting OpenCV installed!

  42. sharan February 6, 2019 at 10:27 am #

    how to update new release (update)

    • Adrian Rosebrock February 7, 2019 at 7:04 am #

      You will need to download the latest release of OpenCV, compile it, and install it.

  43. André Soares February 18, 2019 at 11:03 am #

    I searched a lot for a tutorial to help me!!! Very good !!! Tks = D

    • Adrian Rosebrock February 20, 2019 at 12:28 pm #

      Congrats on getting OpenCV installed on your macOS machine!

  44. Lazuardi February 22, 2019 at 8:50 am #

    Hello, Im having a problem with installing Python 3.6.5_1

    It said:

    Error: python contains a recursive dependency on itself:
    python depends on sphinx-doc

    Looking forward for your help

    • Adrian Rosebrock February 22, 2019 at 9:04 am #

      Take a look at this tutorial where I discuss the solution to that problem.

  45. Praveen February 27, 2019 at 2:34 am #

    Thank you Adrian! great tutorial. Was extremely detailed and I was able to install OpenCV4.0.0 on my Mac without a single glitch just by following these steps.

    • Adrian Rosebrock February 27, 2019 at 5:28 am #

      That’s great, congrats on getting OpenCV 4 installed on your Mac!

  46. JALON February 28, 2019 at 8:32 am #

    Thanks a lot, very useful !

  47. Wade Sheen April 9, 2019 at 4:47 am #

    Adrian,

    Thanks for the tutorial. I got this working on Mojave with zero problems.

    It seems that you should emphasize to people new to OpenCV on Mac that setting up in the virtual environment is not just an optional way of doing this, but has real advantages in keeping a botched install from tangling up their machine and possibly making other programs and packages unusable.

    It seems that unless a user really knows what they are doing and how to un-do an action, they should work in the virtual environment.

    • Adrian Rosebrock April 12, 2019 at 12:27 pm #

      Congrats on getting up and running with OpenCV, Wade! I also appreciate the feedback as well.

  48. Vyacheslav April 14, 2019 at 3:35 pm #

    Hi!

    I thinks you want say about this address: /usr/local/Cellar/opencv/4.0.1/lib/python3.7/site-packages/cv2/python-3.7/cv2.cpython-37m-darwin.so

    I can rename this file on this path?

    • Adrian Rosebrock April 18, 2019 at 7:23 am #

      Yes, you can rename it and it will work.

  49. Francesco April 22, 2019 at 4:19 pm #

    thank you very much, this is the only guide that works! YOU ROsebroCK!!

    • Adrian Rosebrock April 25, 2019 at 8:54 am #

      Thank you for the kind words, Francesco!

  50. Hank April 23, 2019 at 4:06 pm #

    Hi Adrian,

    Many thanks for this tutorial. I have already installed opencv on Mac. But I can’t close image window (the x button is un-clickable) when I use cv2.imshow(‘img’, img) method to show image. Have you come across with this issue on opencv 4.0 or 4.1?

    In addition, you know how to add opencv documentation to the pycharm? The documentation only pops up when i use homebrew to install opencv.

    • Adrian Rosebrock April 25, 2019 at 8:45 am #

      The “close” button on those windows doesn’t work. You simply click on the open window and press any key on your keyboard to advance execution.

      As for PyCharm docs inside PyCharm, sorry, I don’t know about that.

  51. anon May 6, 2019 at 4:06 am #

    Hey Adrian, I love your project and Im looking forward for more projects from you. I have 1 question since I am just beginning to start my quest on discovering computer vision and its technologies, seriously where do I put the “images” file that i have downloaded?

    • Adrian Rosebrock May 8, 2019 at 1:08 pm #

      What “images” directory are you referring to? The one included with the the downloads of this tutorial?

      You can place it anywhere you want, just specify the path to the Python script and input image via command line argument.

  52. Lovethehelp May 13, 2019 at 10:54 am #

    Is this a typo: If you’ve reached 100%, then there is one additional command to install OpenCV 4 prior to Step #5:

    Should it be Step #6

    • Adrian Rosebrock May 15, 2019 at 2:53 pm #

      Thanks! Typo has been fixed.

  53. Lovethehelp May 13, 2019 at 11:09 am #

    Also a small change might help other novices like me.

    in the installation flow you are switching in and out of Virtual env, sometimes hard to catch. I caught it few times when i saw “workon cv” in the next set of commands.

    Specifically “Step #6: Sym-link OpenCV 4 on macOS to your virtual environment site-packages”

    • Adrian Rosebrock May 15, 2019 at 2:53 pm #

      Once you are in the Python virtual environment you don’t need to leave it. I just mentioned the “workon” command multiple times as readers often forget to enter it in the first place.

  54. Bhawna Sikriwal May 26, 2019 at 2:05 am #

    Alright so thank you for an amazing tutorial, but unfortunately I am yet unable to use OpenCV + Python in Xcode.
    It simply throws an error:

    ModuleNotFoundError: No module named ‘cv2’

    PLEASE HELP!

    • Adrian Rosebrock May 30, 2019 at 9:28 am #

      You need to set the Python interpreter for your Xcode environment. See this tutorial.

  55. krafty June 30, 2019 at 10:10 pm #

    any uninstall tips?

    • Adrian Rosebrock July 4, 2019 at 10:38 am #

      Simply delete your “opencv” and “opencv_contrib” directories and then delete the “cv2.so” bindings from your “site-packages” directory.

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